The foremost challenges in the upcoming decades will be the increase in population, the concentration of people in expansive urban centers, and globalization, and the expected change of climate. Hence, the main concerns for humans in the future will be energy & resources, food, health, mobility & infrastructure and communication. There is no doubt that polymers will play a key role in finding successful ways in handling these challenges. Polymers will be the material of the new millennium and the production of polymeric parts i.e. green, sustainable, energy-efficient, high quality, low-priced, etc. will assure the accessibility of the finest solutions round the globe. Synthetic polymers have since a long time played a relatively important role in present-day medicinal practice. Many devices in medicine and even some artificial organs are constructed with success from synthetic polymers. It is possible that synthetic polymers may play an important role in future pharmacy, too. Polymer science can be applied to save energy and improve renewable energy technologies
Polymer Chemistry is combining several specialized fields of expertise. It deals not only with the chemical synthesis, Polymer Structures and chemical properties of polymers which were esteemed by Hermann Staudinger as macromolecules but also covers other aspects of Novel synthetic and polymerization methods, Reactions and chemistry of polymers, properties and characterization of polymers, Synthesis and application of polymer bio conjugation and also Polymer Nano composites and architectures. According to IUPACrecommendations, macromolecules are considered relevant to the individual molecular chains and are the domain of chemistry.Industrial polymer chemistry has particular attention on the end-use application of products, with a smaller emphasis on applied research and preparation.
Biopolymers are polymers that can be found in or manufactured by living organisms. These also involve polymers that are obtained from renewable resources that can be used to manufacture bioplastics by polymerization. There are primarily two types of biopolymer, one that's obtained from living organisms and another that's created from renewable resources however need polymerization. Those created by living beings include proteins and carbohydrates.
Bioplastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, straw, woodchips, food waste, etc. Bioplastic can be made from agricultural by-products and also from used plastic bottles and other containers using microorganisms. Common plastics, like fossil-fuel plastics (also known as petrobased polymers) are derived from petroleum or natural gas. Not all bioplastics are perishable non- biodegrade more readily than commodity fossil-fuel derived plastics. Bioplastics are sometimes derived from sugar derivatives, including starch, cellulose, carboxylic acid. As of 2014, bioplastics pictured roughly zero.2% of the worldwide polymer market. Bioplastics are the plastics that are created by using biodegradable polymers.
Rheology laboratory testing of polymers to determine the rheological (flow) properties of materials, gels and pastes, to optimise process and properties. Polymer Rheology testing is the study of how the stress in a material or force applied is related to deformation and flow of the material.
Understanding the rheological properties of polymers through laboratory testing will help to optimize products and process conditions, thereby saving prices and minimizing potential waste. Our polymer science experts perform rheological property testing on a wide range of polymers such as polyolefins, liquids, adhesives, gels and pastes employing a big selection of temperatures and deformation rates (both shear and extensional). rheology tests square measure performed whereas the polymer is within the melt part or whereas the polymer has been dissolved in a solvent for intrinsic viscosity and relative viscosity.
Smart functional polymers have gained a huge amount of interest in recent times due to their innumerable applications in areas including sensors, actuators, switchable wettability, bio-medical and environmental applications. varied intensive analysis studies are administered to develop good useful polymers victimisation stimuli responsive chemical compound moieties.
Organic polymers is used as the active component of sensors, smart materials, chemical-delivery systems and the active layer of solar cells. The rational design and modification of the chemical structure of polymers has enabled control over their properties and morphology, leading to the advancement of nanotechnology.
Since the plastics industry has witnessed a spectacular growth over the last six decades, the acceleration in consumption rates of plastics has taken place in many phases since world war II. In areas of applications of plastics materials, a well-known long-standing example is electrical industries where the excellent combination of properties like insulation characteristics, toughness, durability, flame retardation capacity has led to increasing acceptance of plastics for plugs, sockets, wire and cable insulations and for housing electrical and equipment. The major polymer targeting industries of the present-day life includes building trade, packaging industries, in retorting method used for food processing industries, wood-plasticcomposites, polymers in corrosion prevention and control, piping systems, in automotive industries, in aerospace industries and in electrical and electronic industries.
Beside metals and ceramics, the study of polymers has currently become a cornerstone of material sciences and engineering. Polymers have the capability to resolve most of the world's complex problems like Water purification, energy management, oil extraction and recovery, advanced coatings,myriad biomedical applications, building materials, and electrical applications virtually no field of modern life would be possible without polymeric materials.
A polymer Material Sciences and Engineering can provide you with a strong basis in the wide range of issues around structural and purposeful polymers. This multidisciplinary course is proposed in conjunction with the school of Chemistry allowing you to achieve a rich understanding of both traditional commodity plastics and specialty polymers with increasing in the bio medical application and pharmaceutical industry, and in electronics and nanotechnology.
Polymer engineering is an engineering field that designs, analyses, or modifies polymer materials. A polymer is a large molecule or a macro molecule which essentially is a combination of many sub units. The term polymer in Greek means ‘many parts’.
Polymers are all created by the process of polymerization wherein their constituent elements referred to as monomers, square measure reacted together to form polymer chains i.e 3-dimensional networks forming the polymer bonds. Materials of Engineering refers to choosing the proper materials for the application in which the built part is being used. This selection process includes choosing the material, taking note to its specific sort or grade based on the required properties.
The field of Nanotechnology is one of the most popular areas for current research and development in basically all technical disciplines. This obviously includes polymer Nanotechnology which includemicroelectronics. Other areas include polymer-based biomaterials, Nano medicine, Nano emulsion particles; fuel cell electrode polymer bound catalysts, layer-by-layer self-assembled polymer films, electro spun nanofabrication, imprint lithography, polymer blends and Nano composites. Even in the field of nanocomposites, many diverse topics exist including composite reinforcement, barrier properties, flame resistance, electro-optical properties, cosmetic applications, bactericidal properties. Nanotechnology is not new to polymer science as prior studies before the age of nanotechnology involved Nano scale dimensions but were not specifically referred to as nanotechnology until recently. Phase separated polymer blends often achieve Nano scale phase dimensions; block copolymer domain morphology is usually at the Nano scale level; asymmetric membranes often have Nano scale void structure, mini emulsion particles in the large field of nanotechnology, polymer matrix based Nano composites have become a prominent area of current research and development.
Composite material is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components Polymer compositesare high-performance composites, framed using 3Dfabric reinforcement and shape memory polymer resin as the matrix. In consideration of shape memory polymer resinused as the matrix, these composites gain the potential to be easily engineered into variety of configurations when they are heated above their activation temperatures and will exhibit high strength and stiffness at lower temperatures. They can also be reheated and reshaped again without losing their properties. Polymer technology has an effective impact in developing advanced polymeric materials which are useful in day to day life. Composite material, the wonder materials are becoming an essential part of today’s materials due to the advantages such as low weight, corrosion resistance, high fatigue strength, and faster assembly. They are broadly used as materials in making aircraft structures, electronic packaging to biomedical equipment, and space vehicle to home building.
Polymer science has always been research strength from thermoplastics to copolymers, thermosets to interpenetrating polymer networks, specialty polymers to composites and Nano composites. Through the period of three decades highly developed or complex polymer composites have come into existence as an attractive construction material for new structures and the strengthening/rehabilitation of currently existing buildings and bridges. The techniques related with the technology, analysis and design of polymer composites in construction are continually being researched and the advancement made with this exciting material will go on at an ever-rising rate to receive the demands of the construction industry. This advanced polymer finds applications not only in construction industry but also plays a major role in health, medicine and in biotechnology. In terms of revenue, the global advanced polymer structures market was valued at US$ 7.47 in 2013 and is expected to reach US$ 12.12 by 2020, expanding at a CAGR of 7.2% from 2014 to 2020.
Biological macromolecules which are necessary for life include carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. These are the important cellular components and perform a wide array of functions necessary for the survival and growth of living organisms. These play a critical role in cell structure and function. Most biological macromolecules are polymers, which are any molecules constructed by linking together many smaller molecules, called monomers. Typically, all the monomers in a polymer tend to be the same, or at least very similar to each other, linked over and over again to build up the larger macromolecule. These simple monomers can be linked in many different combinations to produce complex biological polymers. The roles of macromolecules in living systems as information storage systems (as DNA) and in biochemical synthesis have been much studied and are relatively well understood and the roles of polymers in biological lubrication and its relation both to diseases such as osteoarthritis and to remedies such as tissue engineering. Protein polymers are available in large quantities in biology, and a huge variety of distinct filaments can be found and Protein misfolding can be a route to pathological polymerization in diseases from Alzheimer’s to Parkinson’s. Synthetic polymers without difficulty can be formed from peptides and these are being studied for many causes, from forming new biomaterials to drug delivery/imaging. The demand for bio-based polymers is assumed to surge during the estimated period of 2015-2019 owing to the favorable regulatory outlook. The global biomarkers market is expected to reach US $45.55 Billion by 2020 from $24.10 Billion in 2015, at a CAGR of 13.58% through 2015 and 2020.
Polymer physics is the branch of physics that deals with polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, polymer structures and also with the kinetics. polymer physics encloses the physical properties, structure and dynamics of polymers (both synthetic and naturally occurring) in various forms including semi-crystalline solids, glasses, elastomers, gels, melts, and solutions. Basic phenomena are of interest in accordance with the applications of polymers in technologies, such as optoelectronics, photovoltaic, coatings, composites, medicine, food and pharmacy and tissue engineering.
Polymers are a highly diverse class of materials which are available in all fields of engineering from avionics through biomedical applications, drug delivery system, bio-sensor devices, tissue engineering, cosmetics etc. and the improvement and usage of these depends on polymer applications and data obtained through rigorous testing. The applications of polymeric materials and their composites are still increasing rapidly due to their below average cost and ease of manufacture. This in turn fuels further development in research. Better understanding of the materials properties in diverse environments and temperature ranges is central to sourcing the correct polymer materials to suit the application.
The traditional polymer materials are available today, especially the plastics, which is the result for decades of evolution. Their production is extremely efficient in terms of utilization of raw materials and energy, as well as of waste release. These products show an excellent property like impermeability to water and microorganisms, high mechanical strength, low density especially for transporting goods, and it is low-cost due to manufacturing scale and process optimization. However, some of their most useful features, the chemical, physical and biological inertness, and durability resulted in their accumulation in the environment if not recycled. Unfortunately, the accumulation ofplastics, along with other materials, is becoming a serious problem for all countries in the world. These materials occupy significant volume in landfills and dumps today. Recently, the presences of huge amounts of plastic waste items are dumped into the oceans has been observed, considerable part of them coming from the streets, going through the drains with the rain, and then going into the rivers and lakes, and then to the oceans. These materials are harmful for living organism and it can affect the ecosystem too. So, these wastes should be recycled or managed under proper method. As a result, there is a very strong and irreversible movement, in all countries of the world, to use materials that do not harm the planet, that is, low environmental impact materials.
Polymers have played an integral role in the advancement of drug delivery technology by providing controlled release of therapeutic agents in constant doses over long periods, cyclic dosage, and tunable release of each hydrophilic and hydrophobic medication. From early beginnings using off-the-shelf materials, the field has grown tremendously, driven partially by the innovations of chemical engineers. modern advances in drug delivery square measure currently predicated upon the rational design of polymers tailored for specific cargo and engineered to exert distinct biological functions.
Polymers play a major role in the development of drug delivery technology by release of two types of drugs like hydrophilic and hydrophobic. in a synchronized manner and constant release of formulations over extended periods. There are numerous advantages of polymers acting as an inert carrier to that a drug are often conjugated, for example the polymer improves the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of biopharmaceuticals through varied ways, like plasma ½ life, decreases the immunogenicity, build ups the steadiness of biopharmaceuticals, improves the solubility of low molecular weight drugs, and has a potential of targeted drug delivery.
The polymers, a word that we hear about it a lot, is very vital and one cannot imagine the life without it. Polymers, a large class of materials, consist of many small molecules named monomers that are linked together to form long chains and are used in a lot of products and goods that we use in daily life
Polymers are encountered in everyday life and are used for many purposes! Polymers are chains made of monomer subunits. A monomer is a repeating chemical unit. The structure and chemical composition of the polymer chain determines the physical properties of the material. What are some items made from polymeric materials that you frequently use? (Listen to student responses.) Polymers are used to make electronic components, paint, plastic bottles, sunglass lenses, DVDs and so much more! Polymeric materials are usually derived from petroleum or oil, but significant research is underway to develop novel methods of producing these materials using renewable energy sources.
Polymeric materials are used from prehistoric times. Polymers are abundant in nature, found in all living systems, and materials such as wood, paper, leather, natural fibers have found extensive use. while natural polymers retain their intrinsic importance, today synthetic materials are mostly used. the first semisynthetic polymers, formed by chemical modification of natural materials, were made in the second half of the nineteenth century. absolutely synthetic polymers were developed in the twentieth century, most in the period 1950–1970s driven by industry growth. These are the so-called plastics of recent society. The feedstock for polymerization processes is petrochemical, and environmental issues have led to more recent developments of polymers from renewable resources.
Textile and Fibers : Structuring the fabric of the future Synthetic fibers, which account for about half of all fiber usage, are made from synthesized polymers based on raw materials such as petroleum. The different types of fibers are produced from widely diverse chemical compounds. Each synthetic fiber has unique properties and characteristics that suit it for specific applications. Synthetic fibers and fabrics are used in a broad variety of industries and sectors, including aerospace, apparel, architecture and construction, automotive and transportation, chemical processing, electrical and electronic, filtration, marine, medical and welding.