• Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies. The first detection of radio waves from an astronomical object was in 1932, when Karl Jansky at Bell Telephone Laboratories observed radiation coming from the Milky Way. Subsequent observations have identified a number of different sources of radio emission. These include stars and galaxies, as well as entirely new classes of objects, such as radio galaxies, quasars, pulsars, and masers. The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation, regarded as evidence for the Big Bang theory, was made through radio astronomy.

  • Geology is the study of the Earth. It includes composition and material, structure, processes, and history. We have come a long way since then, with the theories of plate tectonics explaining the position of the continents, volcanoes, and earthquakes, and evolution, the fossil record we see in the rocks. The emplacement of granites and their erosion can give us a grasp of the vast span of geological time, and geologists are the scientists who find most of the world’s natural resources. Geophysics is the study of the Earth by quantitative physical methods. It is an applied science and includes the Earth’s interior, crust, oceans, atmosphere, and magnetosphere. Applications are broad and can include magnetic studies related to the Earth’s interaction with the Sun; plate tectonics and the interior of the Earth; petroleum and mineral exploration; environmental and engineering analyses; and even archaeological investigations. Special areas of study include the following, among others.

  • Particle Physics is the study of nature of the particles that associated with the matter and radiation. It is a study of very small objects. It deals with the sub-atoms which is relate to universe. In the past several decades a huge amount of experimental information has been gathered, and many patterns and methodical features have been observed.

  • Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics technology may be called an acoustical engineer. The application of acoustics is present in almost all aspects of modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries.

  • Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects. A stellar spectrum can reveal many properties of stars, such as their chemical composition, temperature, density, mass, distance, luminosity, and relative motion using Doppler shift measurements. Spectroscopy is also used to study the physical properties of many other types of celestial objects such as planets, nebulae, galaxies, and active galactic nuclei.

  • Biophysics is a broad field that considers the effects of physical phenomena on biological materials, and the structure and function of molecules and biological structures. Medical physics is a further specialisation into the development and application of advanced physics methods for patient diagnosis and therapy.

  • A photovoltaic (PV) module is a packaged, connected assembly of typically 6x10 photovoltaic solar cells. Photovoltaic modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications.

  • Applied physics is the application of the science of physics to helping human beings and solving their problems. It differs from engineering because engineers solve well-defined problems. Applied physicists use physics or conduct physics research to develop new technologies or solve engineering problems.

  • Materials science is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. It includes elements of applied physics and chemistry, as well as chemical, mechanical, civil and electrical engineering.

    Nanomaterials are chemical substances or materials that are manufactured and used at a very small scale. Nanomaterials are developed to exhibit novel characteristics compared to the same material without nanoscale features, such as increased strength, chemical reactivity or conductivity.

  • The term photonics was first developed as an outgrowth of the practical semiconductor light emitters. It is the science which belongs to physical science department which gives the idea of light (photon) generation, detection and manipulation through various processes like transmission, emission, signal processing, modulation, amplification, switching and sensing.

    It is the study of phenomenon which takes place as the consequence of the changes in the optical properties of a material system in the presence of light. Nonlinearity is typically observed at high intensities (for example those which are generated by lasers). Nonlinear optics provides the key technologies which helps in providing radiation sources in various wavelength ranges from x-rays to terahertz. These are basically used in combination with laser technology.

    Nonlinear optics comes under a nonlinear phenomenon in which the response of a material system to an applied optical field totally depends in a nonlinear manner on the strength of the optical field. In this case only lasers are capable of modifying the optical properties of a material system.

  • Aerodynamics is a sub-discipline of fluid dynamics which deals with the movement of air around a solid object. E.g. interaction of aeroplane wings with air, study of motion of air around the object is called flow field, which helps in calculating various forces and moments on the exposed object. The other aspect of aerodynamic is internal aerodynamic which deals with the flow through passages in solid objects e.g. Study of air flow through jet engine or through an air conditioning pipe. Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics

  • Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. Condensed Matter Physics includes solid-state physics and the study of liquids and soft materials. As the largest field within physics, it includes a wide range of topics such as semiconductors, metals, magnets, superconductors, polymers, and biological systems.

  • Theoretical astronomy is the study of the investigative models of physics, universe and chemistry to observe and analyse astronomical objects and astronomical phenomena which deals with the space science. It uses a wide range of tools which consists of Analytical models and Computational numerical simulations.

  • Our universe is both old and unfathomable, and growing out more distant and quicker consistently. This quickening universe, the dim vitality that is by all accounts behind it and different riddles like the correct way of the Big Bang and the early development of the universe are among the considerable riddles of cosmology. Sensational advances in observational cosmology since the 1990s, including the grandiose microwave foundation, removed supernovae and system redshift studies, have prompted to the improvement of a standard model of cosmology. This model requires the universe to contain a lot of dim matter and dull vitality whose nature is at present not surely knew, but rather the model gives point by point expectations that are in astounding concurrence with numerous assorted perceptions.

  • Computational Physics is the branch of science that deals with implementation of numerical analysis and its execution to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative hypothesis and theory is already there. Earlier Computational Physics was primarily used for modern computers in science, and it has become a subset of computational science recently. Many a times it is treated as akin to theoretical and experimental physics.

    Mathematical Physics is a branch of applied mathematics which deals with the development of appropriate mathematical methods to solve problems in physics and for the formulation of physical theories. Thus Mathematical Physics can be explained as the application of mathematics to problems in Physics and the improvement of numerical techniques reasonable for such applications and for the detailing of physical theories.

  • Atomic astronomy is the exploration of the atomic responses that fuel the Sun and different stars over the Universe furthermore make the assortment of nuclear cores and Understanding the hidden astrophysical procedures gives us pieces of information about starting point of the Earth and its creation; the development of life; the advancement of stars, worlds and the Universe itself; the cause of the components and their plenitudes; By distinguishing and dissecting emanations from stars, the dusty remainders from detonated stars and from reduced "dead" stars; By doing hypothetical counts on atomic conduct and its transaction with the stellar environment furthermore by planning research center examinations that investigate stellar atomic responses in the Big Bang, in stars and in supernova blasts.

  • Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena. This is in contrast to experimental physics, which uses experimental tools to probe these phenomena

  • In the high-vitality atomic material science we test that atomic matter is on the level of its crucial constituents, for example, quarks and gluons. The stage move between de limited quark-gluon matter, typical quark-gluon matter and ordinary atomic matter is called as Quark Gluon Plasma. In the high vitality impacts of overwhelming cores quarks and gluons are discharged from the hadronic limits of matter and along these lines the new condition of matter is framed which is likewise called as Quark-gluon plasma. The move from the hadronic matter where neutrons, protons and different hadrons are singular particles to the quark-gluon plasma stage which is a clear expectation to the hypothesis of solid associations. For the most part the high vitality impacts of overwhelming cores that is plasma which lives just for 10-22 sec since it returns to the hadronic stage when its quick development is chilled off.

  • Plasma, in physics, an electrically conducting medium in which there are roughly equal numbers of positively and negatively charged particles, produced when the atoms in a gas become ionized. It is sometimes referred to as the fourth state of matter, distinct from the solid, liquid, and gaseous states.

  • Theoretical astronomy is the study of the analytical models of physics and chemistry to observe and analyse astronomical objects and astronomical phenomena. Theoretical astronomers use a wide range of tools which consists of Analytical models and Computational numerical simulations.

  • Nanomaterials are chemical substances or materials that are manufactured and used at a very small scale. Nanomaterials are developed to exhibit novel characteristics compared to the same material without nanoscale features, such as increased strength, chemical reactivity or conductivity.