Environment, Health and Safety are considered to be the umbrella term of law and guidance for to protect employees, people and environment from harm. In working places, often a particular department is being assigned to take up responsibilities for designing and implementing appropriate procedures for environmental protection, Occupational Health and safety to people. Such department has objectives to prevent incidents or accidents that results from abnormal operating conditions and reduction towards adverse effects. From the point of Occupational Health and Safety in working sectors involves creating organized efforts and procedures for identifying workplace hazards, reduction in accidents and harmful exposers to situations and substances. On the other hand, from Point of safety it involves Environmental Monitoring that involves systemic approach towards waste management, air mission control, toxic wastes control and also Health-Care Management all way to helping for Environmental Health and Safety.
Occupational Risk Management comprising of identification, assessment and prioritization of risks that followed up by co-ordination, economical application of resources to minimise risks and also to control the probability of impact of unfortunate event. Occupational Health Courses are being implemented in modern occupational safety and health legislation that demands on a risk assessment that been carried out prior in making an intervention. It should be kept in mind that Health Risk Management requires to manage risks in such a level that should as low as reasonably practical. The calculation of risk is based on the likelihood or probability of the harm being realized and the severity of the consequences. This can be expressed mathematically as a quantitative assessment or qualitatively as a description of the circumstances by which the harm could arise. The Risk Management should record and reviewed periodically whenever there is a significant change to work practices. The Occupational Epidemiologists should monitor incidents and risk distribution include practical possible recommendations to control the risk that generally speaking of newly introduced controls that should lower risk by one level that implies from high to medium or from medium to low.
An occupational disease is an ailment or disorder that is caused by the work or working environments. This means that the disease must have developed due to exposures in the workplace and which correlation among the exposure and the disease is well known in medical research. Or put in another way, it must not be likely, beyond reasonable doubt that the disease was initiated by factors other than work.
Examples of occupational diseases:
Exposures in the workplace that may cause some of the above diseases:
Occupational and environmental medicine is probably the foremost wide-ranging of all medical specialties. It is the therapeutic field to prevention and management of occupational and environmental injury, sickness and disability, and advancement of health and efficiency of workers, their families and community groups. Today, the complication and pervasiveness of current industrial processes afford occupational and environmental medicine physicians the opportunity to address work-site and environmental concerns and such community health and policy issues as atmospheric contamination, product safety, health promotion and benefits value management.
Global health is an area for learning, research, and practice that places an importance on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It highlights transnational health issues, factors, and solutions; contains various disciplines within and beyond the health sciences; and is a combination of population-based prevention with individual-level clinical care. While global health places greater importance on prevention, it also embraces curative, rehabilitative, and other features of clinical medication and the study of elementary sciences.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty related to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders like related to mood, behavior, cognition, and perceptions Physical checkups and psychological tests may be conducted .These are mostly focused on the mental disorders diseases. It is combined treatment of psychiatric medication and psychotherapy. Psychiatrists are medical doctors, unlike psychologists, and must evaluate patients to decide whether their symptoms are the result of a physical sickness, a combination of physical and mental diseases, or strictly psychiatric • Addiction psychiatry • Child and Adolescent Psychiatry • Forensic psychiatry • Hospice and palliative medicine • Clinical neurophysiology • Psychosomatic medicine
The issue of Mental Health at working areas is currently one of the most pressing demands facing the Occupational Health-care Services. Occupational Health Psychology concerns with the application of psychology to improving the quality of working life and to protecting and promoting the safety, health and well-being of workers. As it is considered health as positive state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. Mental health in Occupational Health and safety includes psychologists; physiotherapists who tries to understand individual workers, employees underlying psychological process and mental health and well-being in the organizational environment and also in extreme environment.
Occupational Health and Public Health refers to fact of preventing diseases, prolonging life and promoting public health along with new Public Health Policy through organised efforts and informed choices for society, organisation, public and private sectors, communities and individuals. Occupational Public health refers to community that been located within range of any industrial sectors, industrial plants that been affected by such toxic wastes, chemical exposures and other hazardous materials that affecting the health of locality. It involves Occupational Health hazards that comprising hazardous substances, waste materials, toxic and chemical wastes that not been dumped properly or not properly handled that affecting Public health. Thus, as per laws of Health Human Rights such precautions, awareness and preventive safety measures been taken to prevent such Public Health hazards.
Quality Management of an organization ensures organization’s product, quality and services are consistent. The main role of Quality Management is to focus on quality planning, assurance, control and improvement of the product of an Organization. Quality Management provides an Occupational health and safety measure that enhances safety risk management efficiency related to all organizational Work activity. Occupational Health and Safety through quality management provides general protective measures such as proper healthy environment for workers, reducing risks in working areas, providing protection of specific professions and categories of workers having particular Occupational health needs (women, young workers).
Occupational Health Psychology is being defined as the learning of interdisciplinary education within the arena of psychology regarding the mental and physical health of individuals within the Organization for their safety and also providing them with a healthier working environment. It refers to several topics that been directly or indirectly been involved with Occupational Psychology that symptoms to impact of Occupational stressors on physical and mental health, the effect of unintentional unemployment on psychological and physical wellbeing, work and family stability, factory violence and other forms of ill-treatment, accidents and safety, and interferences designed to improve/defend health of individuals.
Women Healthcare in a working division has now become a significant factor in Occupational Health, as women feeling a bit differ health and diseases as compare to men both in physical and mental as compared to their distinguishing genetic, societal and behavioral conditions. Due to the difference in biological changes in all way form such as from phenotype to cellular and has also confirmed exceptional possibilities in the development of health. Now a day in most of the developed countries, the Special Management board has been assigned for better viewing after health issues and safety precautions for women in working sectors.
Agricultural Health and Safety is being featured in Occupational Health and Environmental Safety in the agronomic workplace that specifically addressed to health and safety issues of agriculturalists, farm workers, and their household. In agricultural background several of injuries associated with long term or short term, widespread in the Occupational hearing loss, respiratory problem, poisoning from pesticides and chemical fertilizers, reproductive issue and many more. These injuries are initiated by the loud sound of machinery and equipment that been using, stress from transferring and shifting heavyweight materials, also from gases and fumes in swamps additionally within the field and chemical problem from pesticides and fertilizers and other issues in addition.
Occupational Hazards are being considered as health hazards experienced in the working place. Occupational Health Hazards includes chemical hazards, toxicological hazards, biological hazards, physical hazards etc. Occupational hazards being term signifies both in long term and short term risks that associated with the work-place environment that studied in field of Occupational and Public Health. For to preventive measures hazardous substances being properly handled and dumped so that it does not cause any Environmental Health Hazards. However, improper control of these substances can result in a severe threat to site workers and to the general public. Finally, workers are subjects not only to the hazards of direct exposure, but also to dangers exposed by the disorderly physical environment of hazardous waste sites. Such Exposures includes:
Pediatric Occupational Therapy is being defined as therapy essential for complete growth of children towards their ability that will be needed to be developing into independent and functional adults. Pediatric Occupational Therapists are now actively taking part in their role within the Organization directly or indirectly to keep a better working environment. Physical deficiency, wounds and a mass of alternative issues can obstruct a child’s capability even from performing mutual tasks or with a growth usually through the stages of public or rational development. The more time a child goes without learning these skills more will be problem encounter by the child that signifies the role of a Pediatric Occupational therapist serious to their patients. Pediatric Occupational therapy could be helpful to the offspring who have fallen into many groups, from premature children to youngsters with ADHD that also children are suffering even to recite or inscribe.
The main factors in Climatic change that arises the risk of injuries associated with extreme weather events are the type and location of Occupational activity involved and where it is carried out. Climate change puts potential impacts on occupational health and safety as it varies from climatic zones to others as it consider impact of climate change in tropical zone is different from temperate Climatic zones. A climate change projection includes air pollutions, ultraviolet radiation, extreme weather events and other aspects. Occupational health affects due to climate change may cause by air pollutants including ozone, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds and other greenhouse gases that increases severity and frequency of air pollution. Now, due to such effect, people in working sectors could have symptoms of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases along with ground level ozone increase in respiratory track could increase asthma attack. Now, exposures to UV Radiation in working sectors could lead to development of skin cancer and also can lead to other diseases. Environmental Monitoring includes watching as Natural disasters can also induce sinus congestions, risks of accidents in working areas.
Community health is a branch of public health which focuses on people and their role as determinants of their own and other peoples's health in contrast to environmental health which focuses on the physical environment and its impact on peoples health.
Community health is a major field of study within the medical and clinical sciences which focuses on the maintenance, protection, and improvement of the health status of population groups and communities. It is a distinct field of study that may be taught within a separate school of public health or environmental health. The WHO defines community health as:
environmental, social, and economic resources to sustain emotional and physical well being among people in ways that advance their aspirations and satisfy their needs in their unique environment.
Medical interventions that occur in communities can be classified as three categories:
Each category focuses on a different level and approach towards the community or population group.
-Primary healthcare programs aim to reduce risk factors and increase health promotion and prevention.
-Secondary healthcare is related to "hospital care" where acute care is administered in a hospital department setting.
-Tertiary healthcare refers to highly specialized care usually involving disease or disability management.
Occupational Health and Fire Safety are being concentrated as a serious issue at working sectors and in Industries also. As we all know to cause for fire focusing upon 3 main sources such as Ignition, Fuel, and Oxygen. In most of the Industrial sector Fire Safety measures have been taken with Care and also forming awareness with fire safety risk assessment among workers and individuals. They have created a manual of risk assessment on fire safety that been distributed among individuals that been updated regularly by keeping Safety and Healthy Environment in mind. Manual shares the approach of Health and Safety Risk Assessment that could be carried out as a total part of risk management. It is helpful in preventing fire in the workplace and also to ensure for satisfactory and suitable fire safety measures to reduce the risk of injury and loss of life. For taking proper safety measures some steps that should be taken such as:
Occupational Toxicology is the application of the principle and methodology of toxicity to understand in managing chemical and biological hazards that encountered at work. The main objective of Occupational Toxicology is to prevent adverse health effects of workers that arise due to exposures of noxious and hazardous agents in their Working Environment. As Working Environment has played a significant role in occurrence of adverse human effects due to chemical and Biological hazards that been exposed.
Occupational Safety Administration includes safety procedures, measures, precautions, preventive care that can be taken for safety purposes in working sectors. Safety Administration in some Industries been assigned to look after the well-being of people in the working environment and also to ensure their safety as well. It’s their duty and responsibility to confirm the safety of the people within the working environment of Organization. It also comes under the responsibility of Safety Administration to notify all their individuals regarding hazards and their preventive and precaution measures through training, panel discussion, alarming them, providing details sheets of hazards etc.
Occupational Rehabilitation is mainly a technical way of operating as an Occupational Health provider specializing in the prevention, treatment and management of work-related injuries and illness. Main objective of Occupational Health Rehabilitation to facilitates individuals to its ability to return to work with its maximum potential and also to encourage a supportive Work Environment that empower the workers to reach productivity and other work related goals.
Occupational Health has now become a significant issue regarding health and safety in work regions. So for most of Organizations and Industries are concentrating upon Preventive care and Safety precautions needed for their people to work safely. Preventive measures including all factors associated with Safety measures, Prevention of Risk-Factors, Modern Preventive Safety Measures, Risk Management, Health problems, Good working Environment that all been required at Working sectors for higher upliftment and progress for any Organization. So most of the Organization directorial boards are now concentrating upon taking Safety Measures and Preventive Care to create better Working Environment for their individuals.
Occupational Industrial Hygiene is the anticipation, evaluation, recognition and controls of environment factors or stresses arising in or from workplace that causing sickness, impaired health and well-being, certain significant discomfort among workers and citizens of community. Industrial Hygienists use environmental monitoring and analytical methods to detect the extent of worker exposure to employ practical controls and other methods to control potential health hazards. Occupational Hygienists work closely with toxicologists for better understanding chemical hazards and to take preventive measures. Occupational Health Policy has been introduced in Industries by Government, Private funding Organisation for benefit and wellbeing of workers.
The word Ergonomics coined as the observation of behavioral activity, Health, and Safety, limitation of an individual in the working areas. It generally focuses upon the removal of discomforts, risks, injuries that might be caused due to work. In another word, it is mentioned to consider first safety importance of employees at their working stations. The prior objective of Ergonomics in Occupational Health factor is concentrating upon to create and maintain a good Healthy and Safe working environment. It also focused upon the mental health of individuals in their work sector as well to observe their behavioral activity towards their work. Agreeing to recent research in working sectors, it is observed that lower back pain is the most common health issues faced by the people in a working sector such as in offices, in their workplace, within agricultural field etc. It also tries to know the physiology and psychology of people for having a better healthy environment.