Gallbladder diseases considered here include gallstones, tumors, and acute acalculous cholecystitis. Gallbladder stones are an extremely common disorder and are usually asymptomatic. Some patients experience biliary colic, an intermittent and often severe pain in the epigastrium or right upper quadrant, and at times between the scapula because of temporary obstruction of the cystic duct with a gallstone. If the cystic duct obstruction persists, the gallbladder becomes inflamed and the patient develops cholecystitis, an acute inflammation and infection of the gallbladder.
Biliary tract diseases considered one of the most common causes of extra hepatic biliary obstruction is choledocholithiasis, with one or more stones in the common bile duct or common hepatic duct causing biliary obstruction. Cholangiocarcinoma is an adenocarcinoma of the intrahepatic or extra hepatic bile duct.