• Diabetes is a chronic disease that develops when the pancreas is no longer able to make insulin, or when the body cannot make good use of the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone formed by the pancreas that acts like a key to let glucose from the food we eat pass from the blood stream into the cells in the body to produce energy. All carbohydrates are broken down into glucose in the blood. Insulin helps glucose get into the cells. Inadequate production of insulin leads to raised glucose levels in the blood (known as hyperglycemia) which in return are associated with damage to the body and failure of various organs and tissues.The Various types are:

    a. Type 1 diabetes
    b. Type 2 diabetes
    c. Gestational diabetes (GDM)

    a. Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but occurs most frequently in children and adolescents. Diabetic patient with type 1 diabetes, their body produces very little or no insulin, which means that they need daily insulin injections to maintain blood glucose levels under control.

    b. Type 2 diabetes is more common in adults and accounts for around 90% of all diabetes cases. Diabetic Patients with type 2 diabetes, their body doesn't make good use of the insulin that is produced. The keystone of type 2 diabetes treatment is healthy lifestyle, including increased physical activity and healthy diet. However, most people with type 2 diabetes will require oral drugs and/or insulin to keep their blood glucose levels under control.

    c. Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a type of diabetes that consists of high blood glucose during pregnancy and is associated with complications to both mother and child. GDM normally disappears after pregnancy but women affected and their children are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

  • Pre-diabetes is known for glucose intolerance this occurs when a person has high blood glucose levels, but they aren’t high enough yet to be diagnosed as diabetes. Pre-diabetes is an early symptom of type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes usually has no symptoms, but it almost shows up before the person gets diagnosed with diabetes and it affects adults and children. The long-term damage of prediabetes occurs especially to heart, blood vessels and kidneys.

  • People with diabetes with an increased risk of developing a huge number of serious health problems. Invariably high blood glucose levels can lead to serious diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, nerves and teeth. For further, people with diabetes also have a higher risk of developing infections. In almost all developed countries, diabetes is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower limb amputation. Maintaining blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and cholesterol at or close to normal can help delay or prevent diabetes complications. Therefore people with diabetes need regular monitoring.

    a. Cardiovascular disease (Diabetes and Heart Diseases)
    b. Eye disease (diabetic retinopathy)
    c. Nerve disease (diabetic neuropathy)
    d. Kidney disease (diabetic nephropathy)

    a. Diabetes and Heart Diseases: People with diabetes are more likely to have conditions that increase the risk of heart disease. The Association considers diabetes to be one of the major controllable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Individuals with diabetes have a higher risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD, caused by a narrowing or blocking of the blood vessels that go to the heart, heart attack or stroke than non-diabetic persons). Diabetic persons also tend to develop heart disease at an earlier age than those without diabetes. Some common risk factors shared by diabetes and heart disease are physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, obesity, high blood pressure and cholesterol, low birth weight, smoking and stress. In individuals without diabetes, inadequate blood flow to the heart muscle may cause a variety of signs and symptoms, such as chest pain or pressure, pounding heartbeat, shortness of breath, jaw or arm pain, and sweating. However, none of this heart-related symptom may be present in a person with diabetes. The type of heart ailment known as ‘silent ischemia’ is a common feature among people with diabetes.

    b. Diabetic Retinopathy: All structures of the eye are susceptible to the harmful effects of diabetes. Diabetes-related eye diseases have a strong relationship to the control of blood sugar and duration of diabetes. Uncontrolled diabetes may lead to various eye problems affecting the lids, lens, retina and the nerves. Diabetes Related Eye Problems:
    • Lids & conjunctiva
    • Extra ocular muscle abnormalities
    • Cornea
    • Pupil & Iris abnormalities
    • Lens
    • Retina

    c. Diabetic Neuropathy: Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur if could have diabetes. High blood sugar (glucose) can injure nerves throughout our body. Diabetic neuropathy is commonly damages to nerves in legs and feet. Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can vary from pain and numbness in legs and feet to problems with digestive system, tract, blood vessels and heart depending on the affected nerves. Some people have mild symptoms. But for others, it can be quite painful and disabling. Diabetic neuropathy is a common and severe complication of diabetes. But, often can prevent diabetic neuropathy or slow its progress with tight blood sugar control and a healthy fitness. The four types of Diabetes-related Neuropathy:

    a. Peripheral Neuropathy
    b. Autonomic Neuropathy
          • Digestive system
          • Blood vessels
          • Men
          • Women
          • Urinary System
    c. Proximal Neuropathy
    d. Focal Neuropathy

    d. Diabetic Nephropathy: Diabetic nephropathy (diabetic kidney disease) is one of the chronic vascular complications of diabetes, which tends to develop after several years of diabetes and results in progressive loss of kidney function. The overall risk of developing diabetic nephropathy varies between about 10% of Type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetic individuals to about 30% of Type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetic individuals. The last stage of nephropathy is called end-stage renal disease, or ESRD. Diabetes is the most common cause of ESRD, accounting for 30-40% of all cases of ESRD.
    Steps to reduce risk and/or slow the progression of Nephropathy:
    • Monitoring/screening for micro albuminuria
    • Optimize glucose control
    • Optimize blood pressure control
    • Angiotension-converting enzyme therapy
    • Controlling blood lipids and cholesterol
    • Modify diet
    • Cessation of smoking

  • Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. The two most common forms of diabetes are type 1 diabetes (T1D, previously known as Insulin-dependent diabetes or IDDM) and type 2 diabetes (T2D, previously known as Non-Insulin dependent diabetes or NIDDM). Insulin-dependent diabetes & Non-Insulin dependent diabetes are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. However, there are other unique forms of diabetes that are directly inherited. These include maturity onset diabetes in the young (MODY), and diabetes due to mutations in mitochondrial DNA.

  • A Diabetic podiatrist is an essential member of the diabetes care team who examines the feet of diabetes patients, assesses their risk of developing complications and prescribes preventive or therapeutic measures.

    Diabetes affects the foot mainly due to the development of nerve disease (neuropathy). Due to neuropathy, the small muscles of the feet become weak leading to deformities such as claw toes and hammer toes. Presence of these deformities leads to abnormally high pressures being exerted at different parts of the soles of the feet. The foot responds to these high pressures by laying down layers of skin, forming a corn or a callus. Corns and calluses may be painful, but they are more often asymptomatic in diabetes patients who have neuropathy.

    Development of large calluses leads to death of the underlying tissue, forming ulcers, which are called tropic ulcers. These ulcers are usually not evident all the way to bone, leading to bone infection (osteomyelitis) which is very difficult to treat. The infection can also spread all the way up the leg and become limb or even life threatening. It is these patients who end up in amputation.

  • Diabetes can affect every part of the body, together with the skin. In fact, such problems are sometimes the primary sign that a person has diabetes. Favorably, most skin conditions can be prevented or easily treated if caught early. Few of these problems are skin conditions anyone can have, but people with diabetes get more easily. These include bacterial infections, fungal infections, and itching. Other skin problems happen frequently or only to people with diabetes. Diabetes-related skin conditions:

    • Acanthosis nigricans
    • Diabetic dermopathy
    • Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum
    • Allergic reactions
    • Diabetic blisters
    • Eruptive xanthomatosis
    • Digital sclerosis
    • Disseminated granuloma annulare

  • Both Diabetes and Cancer are prevalent diseases whose incidence are increasing and have a great impact on the health worldwide. Individuals with diabetes may have an increased risk of cancer. It has been observed that cancer and diabetes are diagnosed within the same individual more frequently than would be expected by chance.

    People with diabetes are at undoubtedly higher risk for many forms of cancer. Diabetes, predominantly type 2 diabetes (non-insulin-dependent diabetes), has been associated to certain cancers, while prostate cancer occurs less often in men with diabetes. The risk for cancers of the liver, pancreas, and endometrium are about two fold or higher and lesser for cancers of the colon and rectum, breast, and bladder in individuals with diabetes. Other cancers (e.g., lung) are not associated with an increased risk in individuals with diabetes. In recent times developed glucose intolerance or diabetes may be a consequence of pancreatic cancer and that recent onset of glucose intolerance or diabetes may be an early sign of pancreatic cancer.

  • Diabetic persons have an increased risk of inflammation of the gums (periodontitis) if blood glucose is not properly managed. Periodontitis is a major cause of tooth loss and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Proper oral check-ups should be established to ensure early diagnosis, particularly among people with previously undiagnosed diabetes and prompt management of any oral complications in people with diabetes. Once a year visits should be recommended for symptoms of gum disease such as bleeding when brushing teeth or swollen gums.

  • Biomarkers can play an imperative role in laboratory for drug discovery, diagnosing, classification, and grading the severity of disease in both laboratory and clinical settings. They have a possible for understanding the relationship between disease and health. Some of the diseases are as of protein biomarkers are, for example, cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurological diseases. The protein biomarkers are very useful for diagnosis and prognosis of the asymptomatic phase before the development of acute and chronic diseases such as diabetes, various forms of cancer, and other syndromes.

    Biomarkers for monitoring diabetes and associated micro and macro vascular complications can be broadly classified as follows: genomic (single-nucleotide polymorphisms), transcriptomic (mRNA), proteomic (proteins and glycoproteins), metabolites (lipids, sugars, and amino acids), markers of subclinical disease (arterial function, aortic plaque burden) and metabolic end-products (urinary proteins).

  • Insulin is commonly given subcutaneously, either by injections or by an insulin pump. Research of other routes of administration is underway. In acute-care settings, insulin may also be obsessed intravenously. In general, there are three varieties of insulin, characterized by the rate which they are metabolized by the body. They are fast acting insulins, intermediate acting insulins and long acting insulins. There are other types, or classes, of drugs that work in different ways to lower blood sugar (also known as blood sugar) levels:

    a. Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors: Acarbose (Precose) and miglitol (Glyset) are alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. This drug help the body to lower blood sugar levels by blocking the breakdown of starches such as bread, potatoes, and pasta in the intestine. They additionally slow the breakdown of some sugars, such as table sugar. These drugs might have side effects, including gas and diarrhea.

    b. Biguanides: Metformin (Glucophage) is a biguanide. Biguanides lower blood sugar levels primarily by decreasing the amount of glucose produced by the liver. Metformin also helps to lower blood glucose levels by making muscle tissue more sensitive to insulin thus glucose is absorbed. A side effect of metformin may be diarrhea, but this is improved when the drug is taken with food.

    c. Bile Acid Sequestrants (BASs): The BAS colesevelam (Welchol) is a cholesterol-lowering medication that also reduces blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. BASs helps to remove cholesterol from the body, particularly LDL cholesterol, which is often elevated in people with diabetes. Side effects of BASs can consist of flatulence and constipation.

    d. Dopamine-2 Agonists: Bromocriptine (Cycloset and Parlodel) helps to lower blood glucose levels after a meal.

    e. DPP-4 Inhibitors: A new class of medications called DPP-4 inhibitors help improve A1C without causing hypoglycemia. They work by preventing the breakdown of a naturally occurring compound in the body, GLP-1. GLP-1 reduces blood glucose levels within the body, but is broken down very quickly so it does not work well when injected as a drug itself. DPP-4 inhibitors do not tend to cause weight gain and have a tendency to possess neutral or positive effect on cholesterol levels.

    f. Meglitinides: Meglitinides are drugs that also activate the beta cells to release insulin. Because sulfonylureas and meglitinides activate the release of insulin, it is possible to have hypoglycemia (low blood glucose levels).

    g. SGLT2 Inhibitors: Glucose in the bloodstream passes through the kidneys, where it can either be excreted or reabsorbed. Sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) work within the kidney to absorb glucose. Canagliflozin (Invokana), dapagliflozin (Farxiga), and empagliflozin (Jardiance) are SGLT2 inhibitors that have been approved by the FDA to treat type 2 diabetes. Because they increase glucose levels in the urine, side effects can include urinary tract and yeast infections.

    h. Sulfonylureas: Sulfonylureas stimulate the beta cells of the pancreas to release more insulin. Sulfonylurea drugs have been in use in the past 1950s. Chlorpropamide (Diabinese) is the only first-generation sulfonylurea still in use today. The second generation sulfonylureas are used in lesser doses than the first-generation drugs. There are three types of second-generation drugs: glimepiride (Amaryl), glipizide (Glucotrol and Glucotrol XL), and glyburide (Micronase, Glynase, and Diabeta). All sulfonylurea drugs have related effects on blood glucose level.

    i. TZDs (Thiazolidinediones): Rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (ACTOS) are in a group of drugs called thiazolidinediones. These drugs help insulin to work better in the muscle and fat and also reduce glucose production in the liver. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone drugs occur to increase the risk for heart failure in some individuals, and there is debate about whether rosiglitazone may contribute to an increased risk for heart attacks. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone drugs are effective at reducing A1C and generally have less side effects.

    j. Oral combination therapy: The drugs listed above act in different ways to lower blood sugar levels, they may be used together. For instance, a biguanide and a sulfonylurea may be used together and many combinations can be used. Yet taking more than one drug can increase the possibility of side effects, combining oral medications can develop blood glucose control when taking only a single pill does not have the desired effects. Switching from one single pill to a different is not as effective as adding another variety of diabetes medicine.

  • Within recent years, Stem Cell analysis has become a very important part of the scientific understanding of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes is an autoimmune response medical Condition subtly affecting our health. Diabetes once uncontrolled can lead to blindness, kidney failure, heart diseases and stroke. Therefore it is very necessary to keep the excessively high level of glucose under check. Conventionally, there is no permanent diabetes cure other than steroids, diet as well as weight management. Nevertheless, Stem cells technology has practically fulfilled the promise of functional restoration to the great extent. Thus, by exploitation stem cell therapy it is currently possible to maintain glucose level of the blood. Scientists engaged to develop more efficient treatments for diabetes are turning to stem cells. Such cells can be transformed into cells that produce insulin, the hormone that controls blood sugar.

  • Cell transplantation contains the replacement of a diseased pancreas and islet cells with healthy ones in a patient with uncontrollable diabetes. Pancreas transplantation improves the function of the pancreas, with these goals:

    • Patients no longer need insulin
    • Diabetes-related problems are slowed down

    Islet cell transplantation by itself is that the transmission of active Islet of Langerhans cells from a healthy pancreas to a diabetic patient, whose islet cells are not functioning properly, with the goal of eliminating the need for daily insulin injections. Pancreatic islets contain many forms of cells that produce insulin.

  • Nutrition is a critical part of diabetes care. Balancing the correct amount of carbohydrates, fat, protein along with fibre, vitamins and minerals helps us to maintain a healthy diet and a healthy lifestyle. Person with diabetes, there is at least one extra consideration for our nutritional needs and that is the question of how our blood glucose levels will respond to different diets:

    a. Macronutrients
    b. Micronutrients

    a. Macronutrients: The macronutrients referred to in human diets are the three food groups that provide us with energy i.e., carbohydrates, fat and protein. The three major nutrients are more than simply providers of fuel for our bodies. Fats and proteins plays vital role for building cells and helping the cells carry out their duties. Carbohydrate can be stored as fat and fat and protein can both be converted into glucose for instance. Macronutrients and their relevance to diabetes are carbohydrates, fat, fibre, protein and salt. 
    In addition, we have information on the differences between carbohydrate types and sugar and fat.
    • Simple carbs vs. complex carbs
    • Sugar vs. fat
    Trans fats and their relation to fats as well as guides to vitamins and supplements:
    • Dietary supplements
    • Vitamins and minerals
    • Vitamin D
    • Chromium

    b. Micronutrients: Without a regular supply of micronutrients, our bodies would literally starve. Micronutrients include all vitamins and minerals and are an essential part of a diabetic diet. For example, celery contains well over a dozen different micronutrients including a number of vitamins, potassium, calcium, iron and more.

  • Nanotechnology in diabetes investigates has encouraged the advancement of novel glucose estimation and insulin delivery modalities which hold the possibility to drastically improve quality of life for diabetics. Current improvement in the field of diabetes to explore at its interface with nanotechnology is our center of attention. Specifically, we look at glucose sensors with Nanoscale components including metal nanoparticles and carbon nanostructures. A portion of the applications of nanotechnology in treating diabetes mellitus are artificial pancreas, rather than pancreas transplantation utilization of artificial beta cells, for the oral conveyance of insulin use of Nano spheres as biodegradable polymeric carriers and so on. In this session, the utilization of nanotechnology in treating diabetes mellitus will be discussing.

  • Many common herbs and spices are demand to own blood sugar lowering properties that make them helpful for people with or at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Some of clinical analysis is achieved in recent years that show potential links between herbal medicine and improved blood glucose control that has to a rise in diabetic people using these more 'natural' ingredients to help to manage their condition. Plant-based therapies that have shown in some clinical studies to have anti-diabetic properties include:

    • Aloe vera
    • Bilberry extract
    • Bitter melon
    • Cinnamon
    • Fenugreek
    • Ginger
    • Okra

    While such therapies are usually used in ayurvedic and oriental medicine for considering severe conditions like diabetes, so that many health specialists remain skeptical concerning their reportable medical benefits.

  • Often, Endocrine conditions require long-term management; it gives you information and resources to manage diabetes and improve your health. Diabetes Education is led by highly trained, knowledgeable staff, which includes:

    • Diabetes management clinics
    • Individual consultations
    • Diabetes support groups
    • Expert guidance

    So make sure well-informed about how to manage your health – whether it’s controlling your blood sugar to manage diabetes or teaching you how to build bone strength through diet and exercise. Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to foot problems, eye damage, nerve damage, heart and vascular disease.

  • The explosive increase within the prevalence of diabetes in resource-strapped regions of the globe demands innovative solutions in health care. Advances in information technology, medical specialty and food technology have the potential to create diagnosing and treatment of diabetes simpler, effective and patient-friendly. New therapies, monitoring, and revolutionary enabling technologies applied to healthcare represent an historic chance to improve the lives of diabetic people. These advances alter a lot of essential monitoring of blood glucose values with the facilitation of a lot of optimal insulin dosing and delivery. Advanced insulin and delivery systems are in development that explores to mitigate both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia and increase in range. Diabetes treatment has changed considerably over the years with the development of advanced medical technologies.

    • Insulin syringes and pens
    • Insulin pumps
    • Insulin secretion in vitro and exocytosis
    • Self-monitoring of blood glucose
    • Glucose meter accuracy
    • Flash Glucose Monitoring
    • Continuous glucose monitors
    • Automated insulin delivery
    • Artificial pancreas
    • Glucose sensors
    • Ultrarapid Insulin

  • Diabetes is growing worldwide, but more in developing countries. Diabetes is a common and very costly chronic disease. The field of diabetes novelty to advance and in order to diabetes product containing novel advancements to developed and used, these items will need to survive economically. Financial conditions and approaches of national different administrative bodies that control access to therapeutic advances must be positive in order to a patient in that country: to have an access to technology and are frequently ultimate in every nation.

    • Innovations in Insulin Therapy
    • Growth of the Insulin Market
    • The Costs of Innovation
    • Diabetic Food - Manufacturing Plant, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Investment  Opportunities, Cost and Revenue, Plant Economics
    • Clinical and Economic Decisions about Insulin Therapy
    • Insulin pumps and diabetes supplies

  • Endocrinology is the study of hormones and their response. Hormones are chemical messenger, released into the blood that acts through receptors to source a change in the target cell. The glands that release hormones are ductless, known as ‘endocrine’ from the Greek language for ‘internal secretion’. The thyroid gland is an example of a classical endocrine gland. Its only function is to synthesize and release hormones into the bloodstream. Some organs, such as the pancreas, have endocrine as well as other functions. So the hormones released by the pancreas are released directly into the blood, whereas the other (exocrine) secretions of the pancreas are released into a duct. Diabetes is the most common condition that endocrinologists treat, but it is far from the only one. Other common endocrine disorders include:

    • Adrenal, pituitary and other neuro-endocrine disorders
    • Diabetes along pre-diabetes and gestational diabetes and associated with complications relating to the disease
    • Hormone treatment in transgender individuals
    • Hypogonadism
    • Metabolic bone disorders, including primary hyperparathyroidism
    • Obesity and weight loss management
    • Osteoporosis, including diagnosis and all current therapies
    • Reproductive endocrinology, including menstrual disorders, PCOS and infertility
    • Thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism, thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer.

  • Cellular and Molecular Endocrinology required for integrated research on all aspects related to the biochemical effects, synthesis, secretions of extracellular signals and understanding of cellular regulative mechanisms involved in hormonal control. The scope encompasses all subjects associated with biochemical and molecular aspects of endocrine research and cell regulation. These include:

    • Mechanisms of action of extracellular signals (hormones, neurotransmitters).
    • Interaction of these factors with receptors.
    • Generation, response and role of intracellular signals such as cyclic nucleotides and calcium.
    • Hormone-regulated gene expression.
    • Structure and physicochemical properties of hormones, hormone receptors and other hormone-binding components.
    • Synthesis, secretion, metabolism and inactivation of hormones, neurotransmitters, etc.
    • Hormonal control of differentiation.
    • Related control mechanisms in non-mammalian systems.
    • Methodological and theoretical aspects related to hormonal control processes.
    • Clinical studies until they throw new light on basic research in this field.
    • Control of intermediary metabolism at the cellular level.
    • Ultra-structural aspects related to hormone secretion and action.

  • Hormones play a central role in driving a child’s growth and development. Difficulties with growth, puberty, and sexual development often have their roots in the endocrine system. Searching for advanced ways to understand and to treat endocrine conditions that affect children. It provides guidance on evidence-based treatment for congenital adrenal hyperplasia, pediatric obesity and gender incongruence, commonly known as being transgender, and hypothalamic–pituitary and growth disorders in survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatric endocrinologist is the one who specializes the field that looks into problems related to growth and sexual development and other hormone related problems in children and adolescents. The endocrine system produces hormone, which are chemical substances that regulate body functions.

  • Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the diseases of the endocrine organs, disorders of endocrine systems, their target organs, disorders of the pathways of glucose and lipid metabolism.

  • Neuroendocrinology is known as production of hormones by neurons. The nervous and endocrine systems usually act together in a process called neuroendocrine integration and to regulate the physiological processes of the human body. Neuroendocrinology arose from the identification of the brain, especially the hypothalamus, controls secretion of pituitary gland hormones. It has subsequently expanded to investigate many interconnections of the endocrine and nervous systems.

    The Neuroendocrine system is made up of special cells known as neuroendocrine cells. They are spread throughout the body. Neuroendocrine cells are like nerve cells (neurons), but they also make hormones like cells of the endocrine system (endocrine cells). It receives messages (signals) from the nervous system and responds by formulation and releasing hormones and it controls many body functions. The neuroendocrine system of mechanism by which the hypothalamus maintains homeostasis and it regulates the reproduction, metabolism, energy utilization, osmolarity and blood pressure.

  • The division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (REI) within the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in areas related to human reproduction including female and male infertility assisted reproductive technologies, reproductive surgery, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, polycystic ovary syndrome, developmental problems, and issues related to reproductive hormones. Following assisted reproductive technologies:

    • In vitro fertilization
    • Ultrasound-guided embryo transfer
    • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (a single sperm introduce into an egg)
    • Freezing of extra embryos for future use
    • Intrauterine insemination
    • Egg donor in vitro fertilization
    • Therapeutic donor insemination (using donor sperm)
    • Preimplantation genetics diagnosis

  • Endocrine glands produces hormone, which the body’s messengers that they pass through the bloodstream until they reach their target organ, and they deliver to the targeted organ Endocrine cancers are found in tissues of the endocrine system, which includes:

    a. Adrenal Tumors
    The adrenal glands are the pair of small endocrine glands situated above the kidneys. They respond to signals from the nervous system and secrete hormones that regulate stress. The adrenal glands produce hormones helps to maintain metabolism as well as distinguish male and female physical and sexual characteristics. There are two varieties of tumors that can increase on the adrenal glands:
    • Most growths are benign and symptoms are treatable.
    • Malignant adrenal tumors are rare, and generally grow of metastasizing cancer that originated in a different organ.
    Diagnosis and Treatment: Doctor can detect the presence of adrenal tumors in the following ways:
    • Biopsy
    • Blood and Urine Tests
    • Imaging
    • Metaiodobenzylguanidine scan (MIBG)
    Treatment depends on tumor size, location, and whether it is metastasizing. The primary treatment for adrenal tumors includes:
    • Surgery
    • Radiation Treatment
    • Chemotherapy

    b. Neuroendocrine Tumors: The brain and the nervous system provide the signals to the endocrine system to produce hormones that regulate bodily functions. These two systems are interdependent; they are often referred to as the neuroendocrine system. Tumors affects the functioning of cells within the system is collectively called neuroendocrine tumors. The primary types of neuroendocrine tumors are:
    • Pheochromocytoma, which affects the production of adrenaline and often presents in the adrenal glands.
    • Neuroendocrine tumors, which is a generic term for tumors that affects hormones in considerable organs (such as the pancreas).
    Diagnosis and Treatment: Doctor can detect the presence of neuroendocrine tumors in the following ways:
    • Biopsy
    • Blood and Urine Tests
    • Imaging
    Treatment is based on the tumor, how big it is, whether it is metastasizing, and the patient's general health. The primary type of treatment in which neuroendocrine tumors include:
    • Surgery
    • Radiation
    • Chemotherapy

    c. Parathyroid Tumors: The parathyroid glands are four pea-sized glands situated in the neck near the thyroid. It secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH), which regulates calcium levels throughout the body. Tumors can form within the tissues of parathyroid and tend to grow very slowly, affecting the body with over-production of PTH, known as hyperparathyroidism.
    Diagnosis and Treatment: Parathyroid tumor can be difficult to detect, since symptoms are similar to those of simple hyperparathyroidism. At this time, there should be no specific tests for these tumors, but an official diagnosis can emerge with the following:
    • Symptoms
    • During hyperparathyroidism surgery
    • After hyperparathyroidism surgery
    • Symptoms after surgery
    Patient with hyperparathyroidism undergoes surgery but still experiences symptoms additional imaging tests can helps to verify the diagnosis. Tests include:
    • Scintigraphy and ultrasound for neck tumors
    • CT scan and MRI scan
    Surgery is the primary treatment for parathyroid tumors. When cancer has metastasized, additional methods and drugs are necessary to help the body to excrete excess calcium. These include:
    • Intravenous saline
    • Diuretics
    • Bisphosphonates
    • Gallium nitrate
    • Cinecalcet™

    d. Pituitary Tumors: Pituitary gland is pea shaped, and situated towards the bottom center of the brain and pituitary gland secretes hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands to function properly. The pituitary gland helps to regulate metabolic functions, as well as growth, reproduction, and blood pressure levels. Pituitary tumors advances can cause either too much or too little hormone production. In most cases, these tumors do not spread and are not considered cancerous.
    Diagnosis and Treatment: Doctor can detect the presence of a pituitary tumor in the following ways:
    • Blood and Urine Samples
    • Imaging
    • Vision Tests
    Since the gland affects different bodily functions, the specific diagnosis is depends on where the tumor is causing the majority of symptoms.
    Treatment varies according to the size of the tumor, and what structure it is affecting and how deeply embedded in the brain. With early discover the treatment and the prognosis for recovery is generally ultimate.
    • Surgery
    • Radiation
    • Medication

    e. Thyroid Disorders: Thyroid disorders are the conditions that affect the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland situated in the front of the neck. The thyroid plays an important role to regulate numerous metabolic processes throughout the body. There are different types of thyroid disorders that affect either its structure or function.
    Diagnosis and Treatment: Doctor provides complete diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of thyroid cancers. The treatment includes thyroid scans and sonograms to evaluate thyroid nodules and enlargement and to detect under or over functioning thyroids.
    Fine needle biopsis of the thyroid are performed to evaluate benign or malignant growths of the thyroid These conditions can be treated with surgery or by optimizing thyroid hormone, remedy or using medications to lessen thyroid gland activity.
    • Under activity of the thyroid
    • Over activity of the thyroid
    • Thyroid nodules
    • Thyroid enlargement
    • Inflammation of the thyroid
    • Cancers of the thyroid