Diabetes is a chronic disease that develops when the pancreas is no longer able to make insulin, or when the body cannot make good use of the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone formed by the pancreas that acts like a key to let glucose from the food we eat pass from the blood stream into the cells in the body to produce energy. All carbohydrates are broken down into glucose in the blood. Insulin helps glucose get into the cells. Inadequate production of insulin leads to raised glucose levels in the blood (known as hyperglycemia) which in return are associated with damage to the body and failure of various organs and tissues.The Various types are:
a. Type 1 diabetes
b. Type 2 diabetes
c. Gestational diabetes (GDM)
a. Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, but occurs most frequently in children and adolescents. Diabetic patient with type 1 diabetes, their body produces very little or no insulin, which means that they need daily insulin injections to maintain blood glucose levels under control.
b. Type 2 diabetes is more common in adults and accounts for around 90% of all diabetes cases. Diabetic Patients with type 2 diabetes, their body doesn't make good use of the insulin that is produced. The keystone of type 2 diabetes treatment is healthy lifestyle, including increased physical activity and healthy diet. However, most people with type 2 diabetes will require oral drugs and/or insulin to keep their blood glucose levels under control.
c. Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a type of diabetes that consists of high blood glucose during pregnancy and is associated with complications to both mother and child. GDM normally disappears after pregnancy but women affected and their children are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.