Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by cognitive and behavioral impairment that significantly interferes with social and occupational functioning. It is an incurable disease with a long preclinical period and progressive course. In AD, plaques develop in the hippocampus, a structure deep in the brain that helps to encode memories, and in other areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in thinking and making decisions. Whether plaques themselves cause AD or whether they are a by-product of the AD process remains unknown. The following image depicts one of the cardinal neuroimaging findings in AD – hippocampal atrophy.